Advertising PR emerged in the twentieth century onWest. By the middle of the century, John Schneider, a PR agent, published a novel called The Golden Horn. In his work he gave a rather detailed description of the psychological methods of influencing people who were used during the presidential campaign of 1960. In political parties at that time appeared the first PR specialists.
Then the presidential candidates became a kind of"Goods", and as a market appeared voters. As a result, the confrontation between the two candidates resulted in rivalry between the two advertising firms. The victory was won not by the strongest, but by the one whose PR-service has worked most effectively. At the same time, a variety of methods of psychological influence on voters were used.
Political PR was aimed at a concretevoters, methods of influence affected the interests of the average citizen with an average level of intelligence. Of course, voters are not interested in listening to lengthy speeches about global problems worldwide. They are more interested in their own pressing difficulties.
Political PR is a fairly complex multi-level process. It includes several activities:
- Organization and conduct of effective campaigns.
- Development of strategies.
- Carrying out of sociological researches.
- Image support of candidates.
- Legal support for the entire campaign.
- Development of a creative plan.
- External monitoring.
- Work with organizations (public, political and other).
- Involvement of regional and federal media.
- Countering the services of competing candidates and parties.
- Preparation and production of various visual agitation. At this stage, various methods of outdoor advertising are used: flyers, billboard advertising, flyers, banners, streamers, posters and others.
Political PR is a collection ofvarious measures by which the assigned tasks are achieved. Specialists in the field of PR apply a variety of methods of psychological impact on the population, in order to achieve communication goals while promoting one structure and at the same time neutralizing the other. Political PR involves the use of such techniques as:
- Creating an image of an outsider and a winner.
- Formation of false popularity.
- False support.
- Prolonged negotiations.
- Formation of desperate situations.
- The collision of parties by an artificial method through various events, with the help of frontmen and others.
Political PR includes a variety oftechnologies. They contribute to the formation of the recipient's own opinion about those or other parties or figures. The most common technology, which is included in political PR, is the so-called "speechwriting." Literally this term means writing a specific text intended for oral presentation. The technology of communicative influence on the masses is also widely used. In rare cases, personal PR technologies can be used.
In this area it is common to distinguish between white andblack PR. The latter contains measures that contradict the law and do not correspond to the moral and ethical standards of society. Activities held in the framework of black PR, aimed at undermining the reputation of competitors, includes collecting compromising material, bribery and so on. Simply put, such activities are the dissemination of negative information about someone. White PR, on the contrary, involves the use of exclusively legal measures aimed at achieving a compromise between candidates and the public. In other words, it represents a bilateral system of information flow, based on the principle of cooperation.