The structure of the throat and its features
In the structure of the human body,in which the parts of different physiological systems are located, united by common anatomical and physiological characteristics. These include, for example, the throat - the area in which there are elements of two systems - respiratory and digestive. The structure of the throat of a person, as well as the functions of his departments, will be examined in this article.
Anatomical features of the throat
The structure of the human throat, the diagram of which is givenbelow, indicates an area beginning with two cavities: nasal and oral, and ending respectively with the trachea and esophagus. Therefore, one part of the throat, related to the digestive system, is called the pharynx, that is, the pharynx, and the other, which is an element of the respiratory system, is called larynx (larynx). Pharynx is a border region between the oral cavity and the esophagus. Food, crushed by teeth, moistened with saliva and partially broken down by the action of its enzymes, falls on the root of the tongue. The irritation of its receptors causes a reflex contraction of the muscles of the soft palate, which leads to the closure of the entrance to the nasal cavity. At the same time, the entrance to the larynx is blocked by the epiglottis.
Compression of the muscles of the pharynx pushes the food lump inesophagus, which, wavyly cutting, moves it into the stomach. The pharynx, or larynx, as was already said before, is part of the respiratory system. It receives air from the nasal cavity, nasopharynx and oropharynx, while partially warming and cleansing of dust particles. In the larynx, consisting of paired and unpaired cartilage, which have a hyaline base, there are two elastic fibers - the vocal cords, between them is a voice gap. The lower part of the larynx passes into the trachea. Its anterior wall is formed by cartilaginous half rings, which do not allow the respiratory tube to reduce its diameter. The posterior wall of the trachea consists of smooth muscles. The air from the trachea enters the bronchi without hindrance, and from them into the lungs.
The barrier role of tonsils
Studying the structure of the throat of a person, let us dwell onclusters of lymphoid tissue, called minadalines. They are formed by a special histological structure - the parenchyma scattered in the stroma, consisting of connective tissue. In the tonsils is the formation of lymphocytes - the main immuno-forming elements of the body's defense against pathogens. This process is called lymphopoiesis. Considering the anatomical structure of the throat of a person whose tonsils have differentiation into the palatines, sublingual and pharyngeal, the scientists came to the conclusion that this arrangement indicates their barrier function.
Moreover, in laryngology it is customary to talk aboutlymphoepithelial ring, located in the mucosa at the border of the mouth and pharynx - the Pirogov-Valdeier ring. In immunology, the amygdala is called the peripheral organ of immunity. They surround the vestibule of the trachea and esophagus, protecting the respiratory and digestive systems from the penetration of pathogenic microflora. The anatomical and physiological structure of the human throat, the lymph nodes of which provide protection and a barrier against the harmful influence of the external environment, will be incomplete if we do not dwell on such structures of the tonsils as lacunae.
Specific functions of lacunae
These are the sites of lymph nodes that are the firsttake the impact of staphylococcal or streptococcal infections that fall into the mouth. A huge number of lymphocytes detoxify and digest bacteria, dying while doing so.
The accumulation of dead lymphoid cells forms purulent plugs in the lacunae, indicating an inflammatory process that occurs in response to the infiltration of the organism.
Larinx as a voice-forming organ
Earlier we have already considered two most important functionslarynx: this is her participation in breathing and protection (the epiglottis at the time of swallowing food closes the entrance to the larynx, thereby preventing the ingress of solid particles into the trachea and the occurrence of suffocation). There is another function of the pharynx, which we will define, continuing to study the structure of the throat of a person. It deals with such properties of our body as ability to sound formation and oral speech. Recall that the larynx consists of cartilage.
Between the arytenoid cartilages, which have appendages,there are vocal cords - two very flexible and springy fibers. At the moment of silence, the vocal cords diverge, and between them is clearly visible a voice gap, which looks like an isosceles triangle. During singing or speaking, the vocal cords are closed, and the air rising from the lungs at the time of exhalation causes their rhythmic vibrations, perceived by us as sounds. Modulation of sounds occurs due to changes in the position of the tongue, lips, cheeks, jaws.
Gender difference in the structure of the throat
There are several anatomical and physiologicalfeatures of the structure of the throat of a person connected with sex. In men in the larynx, the cartilage joins in the anterior-upper part of the larynx, forming a protuberance - Adam's apple or Adam's apple.
In women, the angle of connection of parts of the thyroid cartilagemore, and visually such a ledge can not be detected. There is also a difference in the structure of the vocal cords. In men, they are longer and thicker, and the voice itself is low. In women, the vocal cords are thinner and shorter, their voice is higher and brighter.
In this article, anatomical and physiological aspects of the structure of the human throat were examined.