Information processes in living nature. The concept of information process
Information processes in wildlifespread much more than it may seem at first glance. Falling leaves are associated with them in autumn, spring germination in spring and other habitual phenomena. The ability to store, transmit and receive information is one of the characteristics of living matter. Without it, normal metabolism, adaptation to environmental conditions, training and so on is impossible. Information processes in inanimate nature also exist, but differ in several features and primarily act as a measure of the orderliness of the system.
What is information? To date, there are several options for determining this term. Every science that deals with information (such as all the sections of knowledge relate) uses its understanding. The general definition is difficult to derive. Intuitively, each person understands by information certain information and knowledge about the world around him. In mathematical sciences, data obtained by inference and after solving certain problems are added to them. In physics, information is a measure of the orderliness of the system, it is the opposite of entropy and is inherent in any material objects. In philosophy, it is defined as an immaterial form of motion.
According to most formulations, informationreduces uncertainty, providing information about the world around and helping to bring the system into one of many states. This is easily understood by analyzing the decision-making process. A person often can not make a choice between several behaviors until he receives additional information about the situation. In order for information to lead to the right decision, it must have a set of characteristics, such as:
The concept of information process
All the various actions that can be takenperform with information, are called information processes. These include receiving and searching, transferring and copying, ordering and filtering, protection and archiving.
Information processes in wildlifeoccur literally at every step. Any organism, unicellular or multicellular, constantly receives information about the environment, which lead to different changes in behavior or internal environment. Without collecting, processing and storing information, it is difficult to imagine the life of a creature. The simplest example is human thinking. In its essence, it is nothing more than a process of constant processing of information about the environment, the state of the body, as well as information stored in memory, and so on.
All examples of information processes in nature take place within the framework of a certain system. It includes three components:
- transmitter (source);
- receiver (receiver);
The transmitter can be any organism orEnvironment. For example, the constriction or dilatation of the pupil occurs under the influence of light. The source of information in this process is the space around the person or animal. The recipient in this case is the retina of the eye.
A communication channel is a medium that provides information delivery. In this capacity, a sound or visual wave can act, as well as oscillatory motions of a medium of a different nature.
Basic Information Processes
All the set of actions that can be performed with information are grouped into several categories:
Computer - a great example of flowinformation processes. He receives the data and, processing them, gives the necessary information or changes the operation of the system, looks for the necessary facts according to the given criteria, serves as a source, then a receiver of information. The prototype of the computer is the human brain. It also constantly interacts with the information flow, but the processes occurring in its depths are many times higher than those inherent in the machine.
Some nuances of information transfer
As already mentioned above, informationprocesses in the living nature take place in a system consisting of a source, channel, and receiver. During the transfer, the data in the form of a set of signals along the channel fall to the recipient. In this case, the physical meaning of the signals is often not identical to the meaning of the message. For the correct interpretation of information, an agreed set of rules and arrangements is used. They are necessary for the same understanding of the contents of the message at all stages of working with it. Among these rules are the decoding of the Morse code and other similar systems, the rules for reading road signs, alphabets, and so on.
On the example of any language, it is easy to see that the meaninginformation is curved not only on the characteristics of signals, but also on their location. In this case, the meaning of the same transmitted message each time may vary somewhat depending on the characteristics of the recipient. If the information is transmitted to a person, their interpretation is determined by various factors, from his life experience to the physiological state. In addition, the same message can be transmitted in various ways, using different alphabets, language systems or communication channels. So, you can focus on something with the help of the inscription "Warning!", The use of red color or a few exclamation marks.
The research of information processes includesyourself and the study of such a thing as noise. It is believed that if the message does not carry useful information, then it carries a noise. This way can be determined not only absolutely useless from a practical point of view information, but also messages consisting of signals that the recipient is not able to interpret. Noise can also be called data that has lost relevance. That is, any information with time or due to various circumstances can turn into noise. No less likely is the reverse process. For example, the text in Icelandic language will be useless for someone who is not familiar with it and makes sense in the case of an interpreter or dictionary.
Human and society
Information processes in society fundamentallydo not differ from those at other levels of the organization. The storage, transmission and processing of information in society is carried out through special social institutions and mechanisms. One of the functions of society is the translation of knowledge. It is provided by the transmission of information from generation to generation. In a sense, this process is analogous to the copying of hereditary material.
Information processes in society provideits cohesion. The lack of transfer of accumulated knowledge, including about norms and laws, leads to the division of a single formation into individuals acting only on the basis of biologically based preconditions.
Storage and processing
In society, as in a separate organism, it is difficultto provide information transfer without its storage. Databases, libraries, archives and museums contain a huge amount of information. Often, before they are passed on to their students, the teachers are engaged in the processing of information. They classify, filter data, select individual facts according to the training program and so on.
The history knows several cardinal changes,related to the processing of information and led to an increasing accumulation of knowledge. Such information revolutions include the invention of writing, book printing, computers, the opening of electricity. The invention of computers has become a logical consequence of the accumulation of knowledge. The computer is able to accommodate and process huge arrays of information, save them and transmit without loss.
Phenomena of wildlife: examples of information processes
Information coming from the environment,not only people are able to perceive. Animals and plants, individual cells and microorganisms catch signals and react to them in one way or another. Falling leaves in the fall and growth of shoots in the spring, the adoption of a certain pose as a dog at the approach of an opponent, the allocation of the necessary substances in the cytoplasm of amoeba ... All these phenomena of wildlife are examples of changes in the system after the information is received.
In the case of plants, the environment becomes the source of information. Information transfer is also carried out between the cells of the tissues. For the animal world is characterized by the exchange of information and from individual to individual.
One of the key moments in wildlife -transfer of hereditary information. In this process, one can isolate a source (DNA and RNA), an alphabet with a set of rules for its reading (genetic code: adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine), an information processing step (DNA transcription), and so on.
The topic “Information processes” is one of the leadingin cybernetics. This is the science of control and communication in society, wildlife and technology. The founder of cybernetics is Norbert Wiener. The study of information processes in this science is necessary to understand the features of the management of a particular system. In cybernetics, a control and controlled object is distinguished. They are communicated through direct and feedback. Signals (information) are received from a control object (for example, a person) to a controlled one (computer), as a result of which the latter performs some actions. Then, through the feedback channel, the manager receives information about the changes that have occurred.
Cybernetic processes are associated withvital activity of any living organism. The principles of management lie in the basis of social as well as computer systems. Actually, the concept of cybernetics was born in the process of searching for a common approach to analyzing the activity of living organisms and various automata and recognizing the similarity of the behavior of society and natural communities.
Thus, information processes in liveNature is one of the characteristics of organisms of any level of complexity. They are complemented by the principles of direct and feedback and contribute to maintaining the constancy of the internal environment and timely response to changes in the surrounding world. Information processes in inanimate nature (with the exception of automata created by man) proceed in a one-step process. An important difference that is not noted above is that the information transmitted from the source disappears from it. In nature and automata this phenomenon is not observed. In most cases, the transmitted information is still stored in the source.
The concept of information process is used by various sciences. It can be called interdisciplinary. Information theory today is applicable to explain a variety of processes.