The political regime of North Korea: signs of totalitarianism. The political system of North Korea
Many experts refer to the political regimeNorth Korea as the most totalitarian in the world. Today it is the most closed and the most mysterious state in the world. The form of government in the DPRK has no analogues in the world. Let's find out what political regime in North Korea, and what signs of totalitarianism there are.
Korea in World War II
During the Second World War,The country was occupied by Hitler's ally-Japan. But the Korean people waged a continuous struggle with their enslavers, using various methods - from political instruments to guerrilla warfare and terror.
But, unfortunately, the resistance forces in Korea werestrongly disconnected. They represented the future of their homeland too differently after liberation from the hated occupation. Some of the resistance leaders were oriented toward the US and the countries of Western Europe, others to the USSR and the Chinese Communist underground.
In the end, thanks to the victories of the Allies andthe Korean people themselves managed to throw off the Japanese yoke. But here, as expected, all the contradictions between the leaders of Korea surfaced. Separation for political reasons contributed to the fact that after the victory over Japan, the north of the peninsula up to 38 parallels controlled the Soviet Union, and the south - the United States of America.
Education of the DPRK
Representatives of the Korean elite, in accordance with their political views, moved to part of the country, controlled by the state, whose position they shared.
Naturally, an ardent Communist and supporterThe Soviet Union Kim Il Sung settled in the north of the peninsula. Here, under his leadership, in 1948 a new state was formed - the Korean People's Democratic Republic, or North Korea. The political regime of the DPRK was based on the doctrines of Marxism-Leninism and orientation toward the USSR. In addition, Kim Il Sung introduced his own ideology, which should reflect the characteristics of the Korean mentality in building a communist society. It was called the Juche. More details about its features, we'll talk just below.
War with South Korea and the United States
All would be nothing, but a little earlier, in the same 1948,On the territory of South Korea, another state was formed, which was supported by the United States. It was oriented mainly toward the democratic values of the Western world. The official name of this state is the Republic of Korea.
Each of the newly created stateformations claimed an exclusive right to express the will of the Korean people and sought to extend their sovereignty to the territory of the entire Korean peninsula. The war was inevitable.
And it erupted in 1950, when the troops of the DPRKinvaded the territory controlled by the Republic of Korea. The first was hidden first, and then the USSR and Maoist China more and more clearly supported, and on the side of the second, the US openly spoke. Support was expressed in both material and military assistance.
But three years of one of the most bloody wars of XXcentury, none of the parties had a significant advantage. In 1953, an agreement was concluded that maintained the status quo, that is, confirmed the line of delimitation between states on the 38th parallel. Since then, to this day, the DPRK and the Republic of Korea live in a precarious truce.
Post-war development of the DPRK
After 1953, a peaceful period began in historyNorth Korea. But, despite this, the population was in constant danger of resumption of hostilities. It could not but imprint on the development of such a state as North Korea. The political regime of the DPRK, even in comparison with the communist governments of other countries, was distinguished by special authoritarianism, totalitarianism and closeness. Kim Il Sung's visits to the countries of the socialist camp were very rare.
While in the world there was a bipolar system, lifein the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was relatively stable and calm, although the economic troubles because of the high expenditure on the army constantly pursued the country, but when the Soviet Union collapsed and the whole system of the socialist bloc collapsed, North Korea found itself practically completely isolated.
Another blow that undermined the political regime of North Korea was the death of the permanent leader of the DPRK, Kim Il Sung, who died in 1994.
After Kim Il Sung
It would seem that after such shocks, significantchanges in the DPRK governance system are inevitable. But it was not there. The political regime of North Korea not only stood, but even hardened and became even tougher. His son, Kim Jong Il, succeeded Kim Il Sung.
Since then, with every year, the DPRK has becomemore closed, and her relationship with the US and South Korea was constantly heated. In fact, the United States in the eyes of the North Korean leadership was presented as a world evil.
Despite this, when from 1996 to 1999 inThe country has experienced an unprecedented famine in its scale, due to which, according to various sources, between ten thousand and three million people died, the United States provided humanitarian aid to North Korea. But already in 2005, the DPRK declared that it had created its own nuclear bomb.
In 2011, Kim Jong Il passed away, and to succeed himcame a young son - Kim Jong-un, who by that time had not yet turned thirty years old. Perhaps because of the maximalism that is inherent in youth, with him, relations with the United States and South Korea are even more heated.
The Juche Doctrine
Now we will study in more detail the political regime of North Korea. Signs of totalitarianism are present even in its national doctrine - the Juche.
The word "Juche" in translation from one of the Koreandialects means a concept that is close in meaning to the expression "master of all things". Such an ideal should be a citizen of the DPRK. But in order to become a master, he must immediately obey the Juche covenants formed by Kim Il Sung.
This doctrine was to unify the doctrineMarxism-Leninism with the mentality of the inhabitants of East Asia. She preached an isolationist policy, nurtured the ideas of militarism, vozhdizma and authoritarianism. Like the behests of Stalin, the Juche ideology was oriented toward building communism in a single country, and such a state was North Korea. The political situation created by such an ideology could not but contribute to the development of a totalitarian model of governance.
In such an ideological atmosphere, theNorth Korea. The political system that was formed in the DPRK, because of the change of rulers in the circle of one family, some experts call a "communist monarchy". Of course, not everyone agrees with this opinion, since the party chooses the leader, and it can theoretically belong to another family. Other experts, in view of the considerable orientation of the Korean version of Marxism to national characteristics, refer to the political regime of North Korea as communist nationalism or national communism.
Cult of personality
Even during the life of Kim Il Sung in the DPRK was widelydeveloped a cult of his personality, comparable in scale to Stalinism. This is evidenced by the fact that he has received more than five hundred monuments in the country. In addition, a number of objects and organizations are named after Kim Il Sung. His biography is beginning to be studied in the kindergarten. Already after his death, in 1998, Kim Il Sung was given the title of Eternal President of the DPRK. Thus, his deification actually took place.
Although on a smaller scale, it was also developedcult of personality Kim Jong Il. His biography is studied in schools, and birthday is a national holiday. After the death of Kim Jong Il, he was awarded the title of generalissimo and hero of the DPRK.
At the present time the formation of the cult of Kim Jong-un begins. For example, it was ordered that all men of the DPRK should wear such a hairstyle as their leader wears.
The political regime of North Korea clearly has an authoritarian and autocratic nature.
The atmosphere of terror
Another distinguishing feature of the North Koreanpolitical system is the state terror against all dissidents or simply undesirable. The scale of it has not yet been fully disclosed, since the DPRK is almost completely closed. But, despite this, the world has already learned about hundreds of thousands of repressed.
According to unconfirmed reports, Kim Jong Eunordered the Minister of Defense to be executed simply because he fell asleep at a meeting. And the method of execution was chosen very sophisticated: the minister was shot from the antiaircraft complex. Another minister, Kim Jong-un, burned himself with his flamethrower. In addition, the order of the young Korean leader was executed by his uncle along with the whole family, including young children.
But this is only a small part of those horrors of repression,which is kept secret by North Korea. The political structure of the country is certainly supported by the use of state terror, especially cruel under Kim Jong-un.
The main signs of totalitarianism
Thus, now we can roughly outline the main features of totalitarianism inherent in the North Korean regime:
- obligatory for all ideology;
- Cult of personality;
- one-party system;
- Planned Economy;
- developed propaganda;
- the exclusive role of the state in all public affairs;
- powerful repressive enforcement device.
Here is a modernNorth Korea. The political regime is totalitarian communism with an admixture of nationalism. Such a characteristic of the existing system will be most accurate. In addition, the North Korean regime is characterized by a hereditary change of power and extreme closeness in relations with other countries of the world. The level of confrontation with the United States of America is being aggravated.
Unfortunately, in the near future no significant changes in the political system of the DPRK are foreseen.