The Tale of Two Brothers: What is the Purpose of Life?
Literary and philosophical activity LN Tolstoy is highly appreciated both by his contemporaries, and by successive generations, as well as by political, religious figures and writers of all countries and peoples. No one remained indifferent to his work: neither the French writer A. Maurois, the Indian philosopher and political figure Mahatma Gandhi, the Russian philosopher V. Rozanov, nor the Christian A. Men. Tolstoy was considered by many to be unsurpassed. And he pondered, wrote, equipped a school for children in Yasnaya Polyana and did not think about his own glory.
Having retired, having made a trip across Europe,Lev Nikolaevich in 1859, when he was 30 years old, opens a school for peasant children, in which he saw the future Lomonosov, Pushkin. In other words, precious nuggets. There were few students at school (thirty-seven), but boys and five girls studied together, which was not accepted in the school system at that time.
The basic educational principles of L. Tolstoy
The main Yasnaya Polyana teacher believed that it was necessary to cultivate a creative personality. But as? Children need to develop:
- the ability to think independently;
- the ability to feel deeply;
- interest in religion.
And also it is necessary to respect the personality of the child and take into account that he has shortcomings.
In addition to such familiar objects as reading,writing, arithmetic, history, reading books, walking tours in the park, in the field and in the garden. They were told stories about the Patriotic War of 1812, instructive stories were told. It was introduced and labor training - carpentry and children's usual agricultural work. Tolstoy strove to make all objects fascinating and useful for children.
In those years there were few interesting and necessary works written specifically for children.
Tolstoy tried to correct this situation. Since 1862, he begins to write stories, alphabet, fairy tales, that is everything that children can easily and without effort absorb. Among them, the fairy tale "Two Brothers" stands out, which will be considered below. The alphabet was with drawings that explained short stories.
With the help of L.N. Tolstoy in the neighborhood opened twenty more schools.
An instructive story in the presentation of L. Tolstoy
How does the tale "Two Brothers" begin? From a journey where the brothers, perhaps adults, were knowledgeable in reading and writing. One day they lay down in the woods to rest. When they woke up, they saw a stone next to them, on which were inscriptions. That's how the fairy tale "Two Brothers" begins. Slowly they dismantled that it was knocked out. The travelers were asked to go to the sunrise, then cross the river, pick up the bear cubs from the she-bear and escape, without looking back at the mountain. And on it there will be a house, and in that house there will be happiness. The tale "Two Brothers" opens with such a start.
What were the brothers
And the brothers, although they were relatives and were brought upalike, were, however, different. The elder brother came to the text judiciously, practically and calmly. He did not believe in what was written, saw a lot of difficulties behind it and very much doubted that happiness can be found. This was not the younger one. It was a romantic, full of faith in himself, determined, courageous and courageous. He wanted to overcome all obstacles and achieve happiness. So from the very beginning the fairy tale "Two Brothers" shows how different people are.
The brothers discussed everything that is written on the stone. The younger suggested going together to seek happiness. The elder saw too many obstacles: perhaps it's all a lie that is written on the stone, and if it's true, you can get lost in the forest, drown in the river or die in the clutches of a bear protecting its bear cubs. And in the end, if everything is overcome, it is not known whether the happiness that the stone offers them needs. The younger brought his arguments: no one would write on the stone, try to look for happiness, if not work, then you will not achieve any happiness and, finally, he did not want to be considered a coward.
Everyone stayed at his own opinion. The elder decided not to take risks and did not go anywhere. The younger brother went on the road. Since this is a fairy tale, two brothers in it will necessarily receive everything on merit. The elder brother is sure that it is safer to live a quiet life, and the younger is convinced that happiness can be found, albeit with difficulty and travel.
How the brothers' beliefs are expressed
They are explained by proverbs in the tale "Two Brothers" by Tolstoy:
The opinion of the elder brother
Thoughts of the younger
Looking for great happiness - little to lose
Wolves are afraid - do not go to the forest
Do not promise the crane in the sky, but give the bird in the hands
Under a still stone and water does not flow
They are polar: everyone has his own truth. This is the main idea of the fairy tale "Two Brothers": every meaning of life and happiness understands in its own way. Therefore, the brothers part.
The younger brother successfully overcame all obstacles and received the kingdom. Five years he was king, and then came the enemy, and he lost the war, again set off on a journey and returned home.
What did he find at home
And the house was still as before - neither poor nor rich. The brothers began to discuss what happened to them.
A great sage, such that he can be compared with biblical prophets, Leo Tolstoy very clearly and simply revealed two approaches to life. On the example of this story, everyone can choose what is closer to him.