Accounting accounts are a special methodgrouping of the object of observation on an economic basis, which allows to reflect the initial, final state and change of accounting objects in the course of business operations. Accounts are opened for all types of assets, income, capital, liabilities, expenses. They are divided into regulatory and applied independently.
There are certain rules for conductingAccounting accounts, which are fundamental in the work of any accountant. In order to understand how the entire accounting system works, it is necessary to understand the very essence of the concept of "account".
Under the term "account of accounting"implies a specific method of economic grouping, which allows in the monetary evaluation to systematize current information on various indicators of economic activity. It is a storage of information, which is then summarized and used to compile various summary indicators, financial statements. On the basis of the aggregate of all accounts, the main reporting of the enterprise is drawn up - the balance sheet.
All accounts have names and codes,which are determined by the so-called "Chart of Accounts". On each of them are reflected objects grouped by the principle of homogeneity. Homogeneous types of funds and their sources are shown on those accounts that have a reflecting nature of the information name. The "Chart of Accounts" lists codes, names of various accounts, and comments on their use.
Accounting accounts have accounts andare conducted in monetary terms. All these records are carried out in strict chronological order (in the order of the date of the business transaction) according to the primary documents.
Each account is divided into 2 parts:
- Left side - debit, denoted "D" or "Dt";
- the right side - a loan denoted by "K" or "Ct".
"Debet" in Latin means "should", and "credit" is translated as "believe."
Displayed on any accountEconomic and financial operations entail an increase or decrease in a certain group of funds. Each of its sides is intended for separate display of a reduction or increase in amounts. All amounts reflected on its left side are called debit, and recorded on the right side are credit.
Schematically, accounting accounts are displayed in this form:
In accounting, there is also such a concept,as a "double entry". This concept involves the reflection of all operations on at least two accounts. So, any change in the record of one account should automatically be reflected in another account, with which it "corresponds". In this case, the total of the debit entry equals the total of the credit entry. From this rule, a balance equation follows: the sum of assets is always equal to the sum of the liabilities and capital of the enterprise.
Monthly totals (balances) of accounts are maintained in"General Ledger", which reflects information on each of them throughout the year. It records the initial (incoming) balance (balance) of the accounted object, then indicates its debit and credit change for a month (turnover), and then displays its balance at the end of the period. Since the balance is the difference between turns, it can be both debit and credit.
In accounting there is a subdivisionaccounts for passive, active, active-passive. Active accounts reflect information about all types of property and other means of the organization (fixed assets, goods, cash). Passive accounts reflect information about the sources of property and liabilities of the organization (statutory and other capital, loan settlements). Active accounts have only debit balance, and passive accounts - only credit.
In addition to the above accounts, there aresuch as simultaneously reflecting information about the property and the sources of its formation (profit / loss, settlements with buyers and sellers). They are called "active-passive". Their balance (balance) can be debit and credit.