The monastery is ... Stavropigial monastery - what does it mean?
Essential heritage of Slavic cultureOrthodox churches and monasteries. They attract not only pilgrims who truly believe, but also tourists. The latter is interesting architecture, interior decoration of churches, the history of their existence.
General concept and meaning
The concept of "monastery" came along with Christianity in Kievan Rus from Byzantium. This state arose on the basis of Greek culture. From the Greek "monastery" is a "solitary dwelling".
In it, monks follow a single charter. However, not everyone who came to the monastery becomes a monk. To begin with, it passes the test. If it ended successfully, a person is awarded a vigil. According to the rules established at the Ecumenical Council, regardless of the former moral way of life, a person can enter monastic life for the correction (salvation) of the soul.
The meaning of the word "monastery" for many today means directly to the community of monastics.
The first Christian monasteries
The monastery is a certain place with its ownway of life. The first monasteries originated in Egypt and Palestine (4-5 centuries AD). Over time, monastic dwellings began to appear in Constantinople (the capital of Byzantium), which in the Russian chronicles is referred to as Tsargrad.
The first founders of monasticism in Russia are Antony and Theodosius, who created the Kiev-Pechersky Monastery.
Types of Christian monasteries
In Christianity there is a division into the female andthe monastery. What this means is easy to understand. The name depends on whether the female or male community lives and carries out activities under the church church. There are no mixed monasteries in Christianity.
Different types of monastic dwellings:
Abbey. Occurs in the Catholic (western) direction. Manages the abbot in the male community and the abbess in the women's community. Obeys the bishop, and sometimes the Pope personally.
The Lavra. This is the largest monastic dwelling of the Orthodox (eastern) direction. This kind of monastic dwelling is suitable exclusively for male communities.
Cinema. Dormitory monastery. This means that the organization has a community-wide charter, to which all its members are subordinate.
Compound. It is a dwelling distant from the monastery, which is located in the city or village. It is used to collect donations, receive pilgrims, farming.
Deserts. The dwelling, created in the traditions of Russian Orthodoxy, is built in a secluded place far from the monastery itself.
Skeet. This is the place for the life of a monk, who wished to become a hermit.
Most of the monastic houses are under the administration of diocesan bishops. Such monasteries are called diocesan. Certain Orthodox monasteries may have the status of stauropegic.
What this means will help you learn the return to the Greek language. With a literal translation, "stavropegia" means "elevating the cross". It is appropriated not only to monasteries, but also to cathedrals, spiritual schools.
This status means that the monastery is indirect submission to the patriarch or synod. The Stavropegial Monastery is a shrine in which the cross was planted by the patriarch himself. This is the highest status.
Due to the fact that the diocese of the Orthodox Churchdivided into several branches, there are different lists of stauropegic temples. Depending on their subordination, they can refer to the Orthodox Church of Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and so on. There are such shrines in other countries, such as Estonia, Italy, the USA, Germany.
Modern stauropegial monasteries
The greatest number of such monastic houses is represented in Moscow and Moscow region.
List of men's homes in Moscow:
- The Don;
List of women's homes in Moscow:
- Troitsk-Odigitrievskaya desert.
When and where to open a new stauropegic monastery? What does it mean? The decision on this issue is taken by the Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia alone.
Forms of organization of monasticism
The monastery is the place of life of monks. Depending on what form of organization they have chosen, the monastery may be with a common-law charter or in the form of a hermitage.
In Christianity, asceticism is a fairly developed form of monasticism. Even Jesus Christ himself spent 40 days in the desert.
The first hermits went into deserts, persecutedRoman power in the 3rd century. Later such a form spread from Egypt to Palestine, Armenia, Gaul and Europe. In Western Christianity, asceticism has disappeared, it has survived only in the Orthodox direction. Among the hermits, who dedicated themselves to asceticism and intensified prayers, there are both men and women. The most famous hermit is Mary of Egypt from Palestine, who lived in the 6th century.
Another form of organization of monasticism is called Cinovia.
From Greek, the word means "common life", that is, a hostel.
The founder of the first cinematography is St. Pachomius, who created it in 318 in southern Egypt. As for the Russian Orthodox Church, the first community temple was created by Theodosius of Pechersky.
According to the general statute monks take from the cinemaeverything necessary for their existence. For example, food, clothes, shoes. They work free of charge, and all the results of their work belong to the cinema. The monk, including the abbot, does not have the right to have personal property, they can not perform acts of giving or inherit anything. They have no property right.
Rules of conduct in the monastery for the layman
The monastery is a special world. It takes time to understand all the subtleties of the monastic community. The pilgrims' misdeeds are usually treated with patience, but some rules are better to know when visiting a monastic dwelling.
What to look for in the behavior:
- when you come a pilgrim, you need to ask for all blessings;
- without a blessing you can not leave the monastery;
- all worldly sinful attachments must be left behind the walls of the monastery (alcohol, tobacco, foul language);
- conversations should be conducted only about the spiritual, and the main words in communication are "forgive", "bless";
- You can eat only on a common meal;
- sitting at the table for a meal, it is necessary to observe the order of precedence, sit silently and listen to reading.
To plunge into the world of peace and harmony,which is in the monastery, it is not necessary to know all the rules of the monastic order. It is enough to adhere to the usual norms of behavior, the observance of which includes respect for the elders, restraint.