Anubis is a deity of ancient Egypt with the head of a jackal, the god of death
One of the most mysterious ancient Egyptian gods- this is Anubis. He is in charge of the kingdom of the dead and is one of his judges. When the Egyptian religion was just beginning its existence, the god was perceived as a black jackal that devours the dead and guards the entrance to their kingdom.
A little later from the original image of Goddeath is not so much. Anubis is the god of the kingdom of the dead in the ancient city of Siute, above him in the religion of the Egyptians there is only a god in the guise of a wolf named Upuatu, to whom the deity comes from the realm of the dead. It was believed that it was Anubis who translated the souls of the dead among the worlds.
The mention of this god is reflected in the Book of the Dead,composed for the fifth and sixth dynasty of the pharaohs. One of the priests described his own stay together with his wife from Anubis. The book says that he and his wife knelt before the divine judges. In the ward, where the fate of the soul is decided, a special scale is installed, behind which stands the god of death Anubis. He puts the heart of the priest on the left chalice, and on the right - the pen Maat - the symbol of truth, reflecting the righteousness and infallibility of human deeds.
Anubis-Sab is another Egyptian name for this god. It means "divine judge". In the annals there is information that he had magical abilities - he could see the future. It was Anubis who was responsible for preparing the deceased for death. His duties included embalming and mummification of the body. Then around the body he exhibited children, each of them in their hands had vessels with the bodies of the deceased. This ritual was conducted to protect the soul. Worshiping Anubis, during the preparation of the body the priests wore a mask with the face of a jackal. The proper conduct of all ceremonies provided a guarantee that at night a mystical deity would protect the body of the deceased from the influence of evil spirits.
When the Roman Empire began activethe development of the cults of Isis and Serapis, the perception of the deity of ancient Egypt with the jackal's head changed slightly. The Greeks and Romans began to consider him a servant of the supreme gods, comparing the god of the dead with Hermes. In those days it was believed that he patronizes anesthesiologists, psychologists and psychiatrists. Such an opinion appeared after attributing Anubis additional qualities. It was also believed that he was able to point the right way to the erring, to get him out of the labyrinth.
Ancient Egyptian god of death
Mostly depicted Anubis with a human body andthe jackal's head. His main mission was to send the soul to the afterlife. There are records that he appeared to people in the Old Kingdom period, taking the image of the Duat. According to the legends, his mother was the goddess Nephthys, and the goddess Inut became the wife.
Most of all Anubisu was worshiped in Kinopole -the capital of the seventeenth Egyptian noma. In one of the cycles of descriptions of the gods, the patron of the dead helped Isis in search of parts of Osiris. But in times of animistic ideas, the inhabitants of Anubis appeared in the image of a dog of black color.
Over time, the Egyptian religion developed, andAnubis changed his image. Now he was portrayed as a man with a dog's head. Kinopil became the center of worship of the god of death. According to Egyptologists, the spread of the cult was extremely rapid in those times. According to the inhabitants of the Ancient Kingdom, this deity was the master of the afterlife, and called him Hentianimento. Before the advent of Osiris, he was central to the whole West. Other sources indicate that this is not his name, but the name of the place where the temple of worship of Anubis is located. The literal translation of this word sounds like "the very first inhabitant of the west." But after the Egyptians began to worship Osiris, many functions of the Duath passed to the new supreme god.
The period of the New Kingdom, XVI-XI century BC
In Egyptian mythology, Anubis is the god of the dead,The son of Osiris and Nephthys, the sister of Isis. The newborn god was hidden from her mother by Seth, her legitimate spouse, in the swamps of the Nile. Later, he was found by Isis, the goddess-mother, who raised Anubis. After some time, Seth, turning into a leopard, killed Osiris, tearing his body into pieces and scattering all over the world.
He helped Isis assemble the remains of Osiris Anubis. He wrapped his father's body in a special cloth, and, according to legend, this was the origin of the first mummy. It is thanks to this myth that Anubis became the patron of necropolises and the god of embalming. So the son wanted to save his father's body. According to the tribute, Anubis had a daughter named Kebkhut, who performed libations in honor of the deceased.
During the period of the Old Kingdom from 2686 to 2181 beforeAD, the name Anubis was recorded in the form of two hieroglyphs, the literal translation of which sounds like "jackal" and "peace be upon him." After that, the name of God began to be recorded as "jackal on a high stand". This designation is still used.
History of the cult
In the period from 3100 to 2686 years BCrepresented Anubis in the form of a jackal. His images are also on the stone of the era of the reign of the first dynasty of the pharaohs. Previously, people were buried in shallow pits that often tore jackals, which is probably why the Egyptians associated the god of death with this animal.
The earliest references to this god areinstructions in the texts of the pyramids, where Anubis meets in the explanation of the rules of the burial of the pharaohs. At that time, this god was considered the most significant in the realm of the dead. Over time, his influence weakened, and already in the Roman era, depicted the ancient god Anubis together with the dead, whom he led by the hand.
As for the origin of this god, thenthe information also changed after time. Considering the early Egyptian mythology, one can find references to the fact that he is the son of the god Ra. Found texts of sarcophagi report that Anubis is the son of Bastet (the goddess with the head of a cat) or Hesat (goddess-cow). After some time, his mother began to be considered Nephthys, who abandoned the baby, after which he was adopted by her sister Isis. Many researchers believe that such a change in the genealogy of God is nothing more than an attempt to make it part of the pedigree of the god Osiris.
When the Greeks ascended to the throne, the EgyptianAnubis was crossed with Hermes and turned into a single god of the dead Hermanubis because of the similarity of their missions. In Rome, this god was worshiped until the second century of our era. Then the same mention of him could be found in the alchemical and mystical literature of the Middle Ages and even the Renaissance. Despite the opinion of the Romans and Greeks that the Egyptian gods are too primitive, and their images are unaccustomed, it was Anubis that became part of their religion. They compared him to Sirius and was revered as a Cerberus living in the kingdom of Hades.
The main function of one of the gods of Egypt Anubiswas the protection of graves. It was believed that he guarded the desert necropolises on the western banks of the Nile. This is evidenced by the texts carved on the graves. He also engaged in embalming and mummification of corpses. In the funerary chambers of the pharaohs, rituals were performed, where priests, wearing a jackal mask, performed all the necessary procedures so that at night the god protected the body from evil forces. According to the legends, Anubis saved the bodies of the dead from enraged forces, using a red-hot iron rod for this.
Image in art
It was Anubis most often portrayed in artAncient Egypt. At the very beginning he was represented by a black dog. It should be noted that the shade was purely symbolic, it reflected the color of the corpse after rubbing it with soda and resin for further mummification. In addition, black reflected the color of the silt in the river and was associated with fertility, foreshadowing the rebirth of the dead in the world. Later the images changed, representing the god of death Anubis steel in the form of a man with a jackal head.
Around his body passed a tape, and in his hands heheld the chain. As for funeral art, he was portrayed as a participant in mummification or sitting on the grave and guarding it. The most unique and unusual image of Anubis was the find in the tomb of Ramses the second in the city of Abydos, where the face of the god was completely human.