The best breed of sheep: photo and description, description
Over the 8-thousand-year history of sheep breeding developmenta large number of different breeds were excavated. They are able to satisfy any requests that are associated with these animals: milk, cheese, wool and meat. Today we will consider the most productive breeds of sheep, which have become widespread in Russia.
In the Soviet Union such a branch of livestock,as sheep breeding, was oriented to meat and wool products. Today in the Russian Federation meat is a priority. Especially widespread were such breeds in the following territories:
- North Caucasus.
- The Urals.
- The lower reaches of the Volga.
- East and West Siberian regions.
To the advantages of animals of this direction inFirst of all, high rates of fat and meat are included. Sheep can stay on open grazing throughout the year. They adapt well to different climatic conditions: to cold winter and hot summer. Are unpretentious to forages. Even if the animals are on a sparse diet, their body is able to form a fat reserve.
All animal meat breeds of sheep have characteristic features:
- large sizes;
- high percentage of meat yield;
- strong fleshy body;
- high content of muscle mass;
- early maturity and fecundity (Romanov's sheeps are the highest);
- good immunity to diseases and helminths;
- fast growth;
- excellent lactation;
- strong healthy young growth.
Now let's get to the point. What are the best breeds of sheep? Let's talk about where and when they were withdrawn and about their distinctive features.
One of the most popular and popularis considered a Romanovian sheep. The breed was bred in the XIII century in Yaroslavl province. A distinctive feature of the Romanovskaya is the multiplicity. The uterus can bear and give birth without causing damage to the health of five or more lambs.
The very first characteristic of the Romanov breed was introduced in 1908. At present, the individual must comply with the following parameters:
- strong constitution;
- average height;
- strong bones;
- strong, straight legs;
- wide withers;
- deep and broad chest;
- slightly saggy sacrum;
- smooth back;
- developed musculature.
Sheep and sheep of this breed can be horned, but, according to the standard, the pedigree animals of horns should not have.
Purebred lambs appear in the light black color, only on the head and legs, closer to the hoofs, white markings are allowed. A couple of weeks later, rams and yarochek begins to appear light down, and by the age of 5months. lambs acquire the color that is characteristic of adult individuals of this breed, and are ready for the first haircut. It is believed that it is at this age that the best sheep is formed.
For a year the sheep of the Romanov breed are cut three times: in the spring, summer and autumn periods. From one ram for one haircut receive about three kilograms of wool, with a sheep less - one and a half kilograms.
In addition to the unique fur products, whichreceive from this breed of sheep, it is economically beneficial to grow it for meat. The weight of the sexually mature ram is 70, and sometimes reaches 100 kilograms. A sheep weighs about fifty kilograms, lambs at the age of 3 months have a weight of about 17, and in nine months - about 40 kilograms.
One of the distinguishing characteristics of sheepRomanov breed is considered that they are ready for reproduction not only in a certain period, but throughout the year. All this makes it possible to receive from one uterus a few litters a year, which allows you to plan lambing at a more favorable time. It is estimated that one uterus can give 100 kg of mutton per year and 2-3 high-class runes (for slaughtering lambs at the age of eight months). All of the above qualities make it possible to widely use the rock for an intensive growing method.
Advantages and disadvantages
Like most animals, this breed of sheep (photo representatives see above) has its advantages and disadvantages. Of the merits, we can distinguish the following properties:
- polyester (ability for year-round insemination);
- high lactation (200 liters of milk);
- early maturity.
At the same time, the first products in the form of wool or sheepskin can be removed already from lambs of five to six months old, and in 7-9 months they receive the first meat.
Of the disadvantages should be noted propensity to pulmonary diseases, fearfulness. Romanovskie are especially sensitive to sharp changes in temperature, drafts and humidity.
The breed was bred in the Soviet period, in the thirtiesyears of XX century. When breeding breeds crossed tribal Hampshires and aboriginal domestic sheep. Breeders managed to breed Gorkovskaya meat breed with short coarse wool, which has high productivity. Sheep have light bones, rapid growth of muscle mass. Gorkovskaya sheep is unpretentious, hardy, with high immunity, and therefore has become widespread. Adult sheep gain 110 kg of weight, and the uterus - up to 80 kg.
It was created in France in the middle of the XIX century.Its ancestors were fine-wooled local sheep and animals of English meat breed Leister. Subsequently, the early ripening sheep that were obtained as a result of crossbreeding were brought to Germany, and a new breed of sheep, a merino-fleish, was created there on their basis. In this way, a number of types of pre-foci were formed, which, according to the exterior and fineness of the wool, are the closest to merino.
Sheep have a proportional constitution, strongconstitution. Because the sheep have too wide a back, a loin and thighs, the figure is barrel-shaped. The head to the very line of the eyes is covered with thick wool. The most common animals are hornless, but their presence is not a blemish. Adult fattened sheep weigh 110-130 kg, sheep 58-67 kg. The yield of finished pure wool varies from 40 to 48%. The weight of lambs at birth usually ranges from 3.8 to 4 kilograms, and after 120 days it reaches 34 kg. With a full-fledged diet from one ewe, you can get up to 55 kg of lamb per year.
It was obtained by crossing localcoarse-wooled sheep and sheep of Kulunda breed. A distinctive feature is the high polyesterity of sheep, which makes it possible to obtain lambs at that time of the year, which is unacceptable for other breeds. The offspring of the West Siberian sheep can be sold for meat at the age of 7 months. The weight of adult sheep and sheep is 102 and 63 kg, respectively.
Coarse-wooled Edilbaev breed of sheep belongsto the meat-greasy direction. It appeared due to popular selection in the end of the XIX century. Bred in Western Kazakhstan as a result of crossing Astrakhan coarse-wooled sheep and Kazakh sheepskin sheep. Thanks to the work of breeders, they received strong, hardy animals adapted to the conditions of nomadic sheep breeding.
Edilbaevskaya sheep is strongconstitution, has the right physique, she has a well developed Kurdyuk. By the way, the older the animal, the more it has a fat-tailed calf. More rounded forms indicate that the animal has good fatness. Representatives of this breed are cloddy. Sheep of the Edilbaev breed equally well tolerate the summer drought and winter cold. Easily make transitions over long distances and have the ability to bait on a meager pasture. This feature is historically conditioned: in Kazakhstan, nomadic sheep breeding is practiced.
The live weight of one adult ram is110-120 kg, particularly outstanding specimens reach a weight of 150-160 kg, sheep weigh in average 65-70 kg and 90-100, respectively. A distinctive feature of this breed is early maturity and high energy of growth. At birth, the weight of lambs on average is about 6 kg, the lambs weigh up to 5.3 kg, at the age of eighteen months - 80 and 65 kg respectively. The weight of the carcass of an adult fattened valushka is 40-45 kg, and the fat-fat fat is 14 kg. On average, the yield of wool from one ram is up to 3.5 kg, the biggest figure is 5 kg; with a sheep, they usually cut 2,3-2,6 kg of wool. Fertility of the queens of this breed is low, they bring no more than one lamb for lambing, which happens no more than two times during the year. Milk received an average of 150-155 liters per lactation period. These readings can range from 124.8 to 184.3 liters.
Tien Shan and North Caucasian breeds
These breeds of sheep have similar characteristics.Animals have a wide back, withers, rump and waist, a fairly short and fleshy neck, thighs and hips are rounded. The wool of medium density, with pronounced crimp, is uniform. A special feature of representatives of these breeds of sheep is excellent meat production (above average), high yield of wool and high viability. The weight of adults of the Tien Shan breed is up to 110 kg for a ram and about 65 for a queen, while lambs weigh 33 kg on average in 4 months. One sheep is cut to 9 kg of wool, from the uterus - up to 4,2 kg. When breeding North Caucasian meat and wool breed, the following were involved: the ronie-march sheep, the Lincoln and the uterus of the Stavropol breed. The live weight of the queens is 55-60 kg, and the amount of wool removed from one sheep reaches 6.4 kg.
This is a sheep breed of Dutch breeding.Meat in animals is tender, low-fat, with sweet tones of flavor and pleasant aroma. The coat is good, thick and thick. It is thanks to this and special endurance that the zwartbles sheep are popular all over the world. Tribal ewes of this breed are distinguished by high fertility. The average weight of lambs at birth is between two and a half to five and a half kg, and by the age of 120 days this figure is 45 kg. The adult ram has a live body weight of 130 kg, the uterus is slightly lighter - its weight does not exceed 100 kilograms.
This breed of sheep is considered one of the oldest inEurope. It was bred by French breeders. A feature of the Vendean breed is lean lean meat with thin, evenly distributed veins of fat and a delicious, delicate aroma. Very hardy and unpretentious animals possess thick wool and, thanks to this, adapt well in difficult climatic conditions, they gain weight well in pasture conditions. Fertility indicators are quite high. The newborn lamb weighs about 6 kg, after 4 months its weight is already 60 kg, and the daily gain reaches 450 g. The weight of the adult uterus reaches 110 kg, the sheep of this breed are even larger - up to 150 kg.
Sheep of this breed are one of the largest in the world.The average height of the ram is 130-140 kg, and some individuals reach 190 kg. The uterus is slightly smaller, but also have a high mass of live weight - 70-80 kg, and taking into account muscle mass and fat - 100-120 kilograms. By the way, sheep and yarochki at birth weigh about 7 kg and are characterized by early maturity. When lambing from the mother, their weight on average is already 45 kg, which, of course, is an excellent indicator. With one adult sheep, you can get 15-20 kg of fatty fat, and in some cases even more - up to 35-40 kg. Hissar sheep coarse, wool rather rough, with a large amount of thick awn and dead, dry hair. The yield of wool in these animals is not too high: for sheep this figure is 1.3-1.6 kg, for queens - 1-1.4 kg. The hairstyle is produced twice a year - in spring and in autumn.
This is one of the most popular sheep, bredDutch breeders. Texel - a representative of the oldest breed, her cultivation began to engage in the XVIII century. The main advantages of this breed are marbling, delicious taste and the fact that it does not have an unpleasant smell and a pronounced taste of fat. Sheep and yarots are born fairly large, their weight at birth is 7 kg, at 6 months this figure is 60 kg, and at 9 reaches 102 kg. The adult texel sheep weighs 130 kg, the sheep are slightly less - about 125 kg. Most often, these indicators depend on the conditions of fattening. Sheep of texel breed are distinguished by their unpretentiousness to the conditions of their maintenance, endurance, excellent immunity. For pasturing animals, it is preferable to use open pasture.
The homeland of this breed of sheep is considered to be Africa.In 1930, local breeders combined the best qualities of sheep dorset horn and sheepskin sheep and got strong and hardy dorpers. The breed belongs to the meat, it is considered one of the best in this direction. Dorperov is called hairless, in the spring they are not sheared, because they lose their hair during moulting. Purebreds have white color, black head and neck. Animals are very thermophilic, so in our country are suitable for breeding in the middle and southern band.
More details on the description of the breed of sheep (photos of the representatives presented below). Thoroughbred dorpers usually reach weights up to 140 kg (sheep), lambs - 95 kg.
Young animals at one-year-old age have thisweight: lamb - 107 kg, quilts - 65 kg. The weight of the lamb, which only appeared on the light, is 5 kg, at a monthly age - 25 kg, and in half a year - 40-70 kg. Dorpers are leaders among other breeds of sheep by daily weight gain under favorable conditions of maintenance and nutrition. Animals have very tender meat, fatty tissues are evenly distributed among the muscles. In connection with the fact that the breed is hairless, there is practically no specific smell in mutton. The yield of meat when slaughtering an animal averages 59%, which is an excellent indicator. Smooth and even sheep skin is widely used to create various leather products.
Total fertility is 150-225 lambs per100 ewes, average litter - from 1 to 4 lambs. Sexually mature sheep become to six months old, jeros are allowed to mating from 10 months. Due to the good maternal instinct inherent in the sheep of this breed, the mortality of young animals is extremely rare. The peculiarities of the structure of the skeleton allow lambs to quickly appear, therefore lambing passes safely. Sheep of the Dorper breed can be cut twice a year, with a break of 8 months. But veterinarians do not recommend this, since frequent births deplete the sheep organism. In the event that animals are allowed to mating around the year, 15-20 sheep are recommended to contain one ram-producer. It is undesirable to give a heavy load to it, as this can adversely affect the genetic health of the future offspring.