Types of markets
A certain set of relations ineconomic sphere, characterized by the mediation of monetary values in the sale and purchase of goods, is called the market. This rather complex and ramified structure allows the producers to sell their products in accordance with the existing consumer demand. It covers all spheres of modern economic relations with its influence.
The main signs of the market are the presence of elements,which directly relate to the provision of production, as well as the presence of components of monetary and material circulation. This economic structure is significantly influenced by various forms of ownership and management, as well as specific features that are present in the sphere of circulation of finished products, the level of privatization of enterprises, etc.
The market has certain connections with the spiritual andnon-productive sphere, as well as with the sale of products of intellectual activity of writers, scientists, artists, etc. All this variety of relationships determines its complex structure. It, in turn, includes a variety of types of markets, as well as its various types. Scientists identify more than ten criteria, which are key to characterize this complex structure. Types of markets and their classification includes many groups. They are subdivided according to their spatial location and economic relations:
1. By geographical location:
- local (local);
2. By destination, the market is divided into:
- valuable papers;
- work force;
- scientific and technical.
3. By product groups:
- markets for production products;
- consumer goods markets;
- markets for materials and raw materials.
4. On subjects of market relations:
- the consumer market;
- The market of sellers;
- public sector institutions;
5. By the presence of competitors, the types of markets are divided into:
- monopolistic competition;
- perfect competition.
6. On the basis of saturation they are grouped into:
7. By the nature of the maturity of the relationship, the market structure can be:
8. In relation to the current legislation, the types of markets are grouped into:
9. By types of implementation they are divided into:
10. According to the assortment characteristics of the goods sold, the following types of markets are distinguished:
- Closed (offering products to buyers, issued by the first manufacturer);
- Saturated (selling goods produced by various enterprises);
- a wide range of products (offering a number of specific products, the use of which meets related needs);
- mixed (implementing a variety of goods).
11. According to the sectoral type, they distinguish:
- The oil market;
- computer market, etc.
In the complex structure of markets five types are particularly distinguished. They include:
- the market of services and goods, which includes various subspecies of this group that sell consumer products;
- The market of production factors (tools of labor and real estate, material, energy and raw materials, as well as natural resources);
- Financial market (investment, credit, currency and securities, as well as securities);
- the market of intellectual goods (innovations, inventions, information services, as well as literary and artistic works);
- labor market (labor resources).